Nephrology is the subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with kidney diseases. Nephrologists diagnose and treat kidney diseases, including both the conditions these diseases can produce such as hypertension as well as diseases that can cause kidney failure such as diabetes mellitus and polycystic kidney disease.

The most common symptoms of nephrological diseases are: abnormal urine tests, high blood pressure, unexplained weight loss, anemia, nausea or vomiting, decreased urine output, bleeding in the intestinal tract etc.

The nephrologists are experts in the comprehensive treatment of:

  • Chronic kidney disease and end stage kidney disease
  • Anemia associated with kidney disease
  • Cystic diseases
  • Kidney stones
  • Dialysis
  • Pre and post kidney transplant care
  • Management of renal complications in pregnancy
  • Acute kidney failure, including electrolyte and acid-based disturbance

Intrinsic kidney diseases including the following, with an emphasis on slowing the progression of kidney disease

  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • Hypertensive kidney disease
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Chronic pylonephritis
  • Proteinuria (protein in the urine)
  • Hematuria (blood in the urine)
  • Bone disease related to kidney disease
  • Fluid and electrolyte disorders, including edema, potassium, acid-based and calcium disorders
  • Kidney disease associated with diabetes


  • clinical examination by physician internist-nephrologist
  • abdominal ultrasound –region of kidneys and prostate
  • renal artery Doppler
  • finding of biochemical parameters (blood count, fibrinogen, CRP, glucose, proteins, albumin, K, Na, Ca, P, urea, serum creatinine and urine, creatinine clearance etc.).


  • clinical examination by nephrologist
  • abdominal ultrasound
  • blood tests